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Judd, Dennis R. and Susan S. Fainstein (eds.). The Tourist City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999, (340 pp.). This anthology of sixteen essays explores the ways major cities have incorporated tourism into their economic, social, and cultural development. Most of the places discussed are in the U.S., although there are several chapters on European and Asian cities. The book begins with a history of the sometimes strange public-private allegiance between tourism and cities, noting that for most towns, strategic tourism is a relatively new concept. The introductory section continues with several essays on the ways cities have marketed and redefined themselves in the pursuit of tourist dollars. Most of this is background that readers of tourism literature will be familiar with (except for John Urryís, "Sensing the City"). The next collection of essays looks at Disney World, Las Vegas, and Cancún Ė three cities that were purpose-built tourism communities. Disney is essentially its own government and there is an obvious love-hate relationship with the community; Las Vegas generates tons of money for international corporations, but not much for the stateís social programs; only Cancún seems to do a decent job of integrating itself with its host community. The next section includes four essays on different niche cities: New York (entertainment), Boston (history), Prague (culture), and Jerusalem (belief). A final group of essays features newer strategies cities are using to increase tourism: sports, gaming, sex and drugs (nothing positive here). The authors, mostly university professors, are neither tourism bashers or its cronies. What one finds is an even-handed portrait of the promises and pitfalls of tourism development in cities. A few conclusions emerge: 1) If cities want sports and gaming, fine, but donít think they will enhance tourism or the economy. 2) A few cities (Paris, Rome, New York) incorporate tourism into the life of the city Ė where tourists and locals mix. Most others create tourist "bubbles" to keep visitors away from undesirables, and this is almost never a good thing in the long run. 3) History and culture are seminal to most places, unless they are purpose-built attractions like Disney World. 4) Cities do best when they diversify their tourism portfolio. The book provides scary examples of places that bet on a single tourism attraction Ė and lost. 5) Similarly, itís best if tourism is just one element of a cityís economic structure. Donít think of tourism as the silver bullet. (Tourism in Boston, one of the nationís most visited places, contributes a relatively small percentage to the overall economy.) 6) Tourism is not a good or bad thing; itís how a community approaches it, and most successful cities incorporate tourism with other activities. The book could deal more with cultural heritage tourism in the U.S.; the discussion about post-communist Prague is interesting, but it doesnít have much applicability for culture here. Since cultural tourism is such a major trend, one might expect there would be more of it here. Relatively few cities have major league baseball (which gets a good airing), but most have museums. An essay focusing specifically on the newer directions in cultural heritage tourism would round out the book.


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