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Every year we construct the equivalent of many cities, but the pieces don’t add up to anything memorable or of lasting value. The result doesn’t look like a place, it doesn’t act like a place, and, perhaps most significant, it doesn’t feel like a place.
Andres Duany



Community Heritage Group Readings: Books That Will Provoke, Educate, and Inspire (We Hope)

What follows is a list of readings CHG often consults, with annotations. We’ve learned a lot from these publications, and we hope you will too. This main section lists all titles alphabetically by author, for random scanning. To view readings specific to any of CHG’s five Program areas, click the category name above (most titles appear in more than one category).

Archibald, Robert R. A Place To Remember: Using History To Build Community. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 1999 (224 pp.). Long-time museum director Archibald uses the occasion of a trip to his boyhood town in Michigan to reminisce not only about his upbringing in this small village – and what has happened to the place since his departure decades ago – but to reflect on the meanings and uses of history in today’s modern world. MORE

Barber, Benjamin. An Aristocracy of Everyone: The Politics of Education and the Future of America. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992 (307 pp.). Barber tackles educational issues such as multiculturalism, political correctness, teaching the canon – topics we’ve probably read about enough. But the real contribution of this book is Barber’s assertion that schools must emphasize democracy and community-building. MORE

Barber, Benjamin. Jihad vs. McWorld: How the Planet Is Both Falling Apart and Coming Together and What This Means for Democracy. New York: Random House, 1995 (381 pp.). Although global in its outlook, this work has implications for any organization or community interested in civil society and civic participation. MORE

Beatley, Timothy and Kristy Manning. The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, and Community. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1997 (265 pp.). Beatley is one of the most perceptive and knowledgeable scholars writing on the themes of place and sustainability, and this book is one of the best publications for communities that wish to move in a more sustainable direction.

Bellah, Robert, et al. The Good Society. New York: Vintage, 1991 (347 pp.). This follow-up to 1985’s Habits of the Heart discusses how institutions can address and help to nourish the idea of community in America – from political, religious, economic, and educational points of view. MORE

Bellah, Robert, et al. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. New York: Harper & Row, 1985 (355 pp.). This mid-80s study is rightly so one of the most discussed of the early communitarian works. Habits examines the American character, suggesting that our original republican and biblical traditions have been largely undermined by putting individual concerns before the common good. MORE

Benyus, Janine M. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired By Nature. Harper, 1998 (308 pp.). In her classic study of biomimicry, which is the art of adapting nature's designs to human technologies and systems, Benyus goes well beyond the usual discoveries, such as applying a spider's silk-making techniques to manufacturing Kevlar, or using a plant's snagging skills to create Velcro. She persuasively demonstrates how using nature as a model can serve agriculture, health care, energy creation and consumption, computer design, and economic development. A truly multidisciplinary book, Biomimicry is one of the bibles of sustainability – a must-read for any community hoping to create Earth-friendly designs that also bolster the economy.

Boniface, Priscilla. Managing Quality Cultural Tourism. London: Routledge, 1995 (127 pp.). Boniface is a pioneer in heritage tourism studies, and this book, a brief text that seems intended mostly for students rather than practitioners, is one of the earliest to approach the issue of cultural resource management from a tourism perspective. MORE

Bosselman, Fred P., Craig A. Peterson, and Claire McCarthy. Managing Tourism Growth: Issues and Applications. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999 (304 pp.). The approach here is technical and legal. The authors examine how entire communities – neighborhoods, towns, cities, regions, countries – approach tourism. They note tourism can provide benefits to host communities, mostly economic, but they’re also clear that the industry can have a downside if it’s not managed according to local customs, capacities, and values. MORE

Briand, Michael. Practical Politics: Five Principles for a Community That Works. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1999 (238 pp.). Long-time community activist Briand explains in clear terms, with many examples and ample direction, five principles for reinvigorating civic participation in communities: inclusion, comprehension, deliberation, cooperation, realism. It’s both conceptual and highly practical – a great place to begin to work of self-government.

Brown, Jessica, Nora Mitchell and Michael Beresford (eds.). The Protected Landscape Approach: Linking Nature, Culture and Community. Cambridge UK: IUCN Publications Services Unit, 2005 (268 pp.). This anthology of 17 articles examines the growing “Protected Landscape Approach” within the conservation movement. While much of the book is technical and intended for professional conservationists and heritage managers, it is accessible to most readers, especially those wishing to build a healthier quality of life for their community. Most essays focus on the evolving nature of landscape conservation, which increasingly is recognizing the interrelationships between land and human culture. As such, the book urges local cooperation among place-based entities, and it envisions “place” as a mosaic – not a separate island unto itself. Another focus is the process of sustainable land management, which is also shifting – from an “expert,” top-down approach to one that involves local voices in decision making. While community-building and tourism are subcategories here, the processes that underpin the Protected Landscape approach will benefit both. The anthology includes many examples and case studies, and while most of these are outside the U.S., their findings are no less relevant.

Casey, Edward S. The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997 (488 pp.). Anyone interested in "place" from a strictly philosophical point of view might want to consult this academic, dense, but well-organized exploration into the subject. Not exactly light reading!

Chambers, Erve (ed.). Tourism and Culture: An Applied Perspective. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1997 (221 pp.). The "Applied" in the title is an attempt to connect the discipline of anthropology to the tourism industry by examining the underlying cultural contexts within which tourism operates – and to look at the effects of tourism on different communities’ social markers. MORE

Coontz, Stephanie. The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap. New York: Basic Books, 1992 (400 pp.). The decline of community has caused many to blame the situation on the collapse of the nuclear family; thus, we hear a lot of noise about "getting back to family values." For those who might advocate that solution, Cootz asks, "What family values are you talking about, because they never existed as you remember them." MORE

Cronon, William. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991 (530 pp.). Few books tell the story of a city as completely and interestingly as Cronon's Nature's Metropolis. Although this masterpiece of urban history is about Chicago, the story of the city-country divide and unity that Cronon recounts is true of most regions. In addition to regional identity and sense of place, Nature's Metropolis raises fascinating questions about economic flow, natural resource depletion, pollution, and city design. At its root, however, the book examines the necessary link between urban and rural landscapes — how they continue to remake one another.

Cronon, William, ed. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996 (561 pp.). So much of the conversation about "sense of place" concerns the relationship between humans and the environment. In this groundbreaking and somewhat controversial study, fifteen scholars from a variety of backgrounds (history, science, philosophy, gender studies, literature, etc.) examine the ways nature is constructed through culture. While the book offers few solutions to our environmental problems, the essays certainly provide a different way of thinking about them.

Daily, Gretchen C. and Katherine Ellison. The New Economy of Nature: The Quest To Make Conservation Profitable. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2002 (260 pp.). Just as ecotourism and heritage tourism use the natural and cultural environments for economic benefits, a new breed of ecological entrepreneurs is experimenting with programs and approaches that will help save our disappearing natural resources and make money at the same time. MORE

Daly, Herman. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996 (253 pp.). A former economist for the World Bank, Daly has become one of the principal spokespersons for the sustainability movement – the idea that humans should not consume nonrenewable resources at a rate that leaves fewer supplies for future generations. What gives Daly’s argument credibility is his understanding of economics. MORE

Davidson, Eric A. You Can't Eat GNP: Economics As If Ecology Mattered. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Press, 2000 (247 pp.). Similar to the work of Herman Daly, this book argues that societies cannot separate the environment from economics; the two are intertwined, and ruining the land, sea, and sky will eventually ruin the economy. Davidson, a scientist who writes in a clear style that laypersons can appreciate, maintains that the neoclassical branch of economics, in which the environment is not factored, must give way to a more comprehensive and sustainable approach.

de Graaf, John, David Wann and Thomas H. Naylor. Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., 2001 (268 pp.). There are numerous books about how we’re ruining the environment, how over-consumption spoils communities, how advertising entices us to buy what we don’t need. The value of this book is that it pulls these ailments together into a whimsical critique of our quest to have more stuff – and connects it all to the shape and purpose of community. MORE

Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose To Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking, 2005 (575 pp.). In his previous Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Guns, Germs, and Steel, geography professor Diamond looked at why civilizations grow and evolve the way they do. In Collapse he examines the opposite question: why they disintegrate. Although he deals with prehistoric cultures like Easter Island or the Anasazi, his warnings concerning the over-use of natural resources are relevant today.

Dillard, Annie. Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. New York, Harper & Row, 1974 (271 pp.). Simply put, one of the finest personal explorations of the natural universe ever written – our generation's Walden. Dillard received the Pulitzer Prize for her study, which includes fascinating scientific data wrapped in her own brand of spiritual awe. If you're searching for the connections between people and nature, start here.

Drummond, Siobhan and Ian Yeoman (eds.). Quality Issues in Heritage Visitor Attractions. Oxford: Butterworth / Heinemann, 2001 (273 pp.). This anthology begins by examining the idea of quality in the service sector, primarily from a Total Quality Management (TQM) perspective, and then links this understanding to the heritage industry. MORE

Duany, Andres, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Jeff Speck. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press, 2000 (294 pp.). Duany and wife Plater-Zybeck have become the Pied Pipers of New Urbanism, or Neotraditionalism, as it is also called. This popular book outlines the basic thesis of their architectural approach to designing livable places. MORE

Dutton, John A. New American Urbanism: Re-forming the American Metropolis. New York: Abbeville Publishing Group, 2000 (223 pp.). While intended primarily for architecture students and city planners, this highly readable and beautifully illustrated book is appropriate for any reader concerned about the design of the American landscape. MORE

Edgell, David L. Managing Sustainable Tourism: A Legacy for the Future. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, 2006 (144 pp.). This slim volume by a seasoned tourism scholar is less about “managing” sustainable tourism programs than it is about the evolution of the sustainability niche. Edgell succinctly recounts the developments, reports, and research in the hospitality sector that have led to the sustainability movement, an analysis that argues more or less that a responsible approach to tourism – economically, environmentally, socially – is not only preferred but necessary, given the industry's reliance on and connection to environmental and social contexts. The book would be a good introduction to the tourism developments that have led to and continue to frame the sustainability debate within travel industry circles, i.e., ecotourism, cultural tourism, heritage tourism. Edgell also describes many sustainable tourism programs, and from these examples he extracts several seminal principles that underpin the movement, such as authenticity, local participation, and environmental protection. However, he says less about how these and other topics are dealt with, especially when controversy erupts – the “managing” element that the title promises. The book makes a good argument for sustainable tourism, and it includes some fine case studies; but there could be more about how these programs operate. Weaver's study, Sustainable Tourism, while a textbook, tackles the issues in a more helpful manner.

Edwards, Andres. The Sustainability Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 2005 (206 pp.). This helpful book provides a concise overview of the sustainability trend, examining it from social, cultural, built, economic, and biotic perspectives. Communities, businesses, and organizations hoping to design and implement sustainable practices would do well to consult this book, which serves as a good introduction or primer—clear and not heavy on technical applications. Edwards offers a brief history of sustainability and then explains how the concept has worked its way into most contemporary economic and social circles. In addition numerous best practices that are described throughout the text, the index is most helpful, providing dozens of examples of organizations, websites, publications, and consultants who work in the sustainability sector. A good place to start.

Esty, Daniel and Andrew Winston. Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006 (366 pp.). This book's title pretty much tells the whole story: business can no longer afford to ignore resource limitations, and “smart” companies are figuring out how to incorporate “green” strategies and make money at the same time. Like many other books that document successful sustainable-business projects, Green to Gold tends to focus on companies whose link to the environment is obvious, such as manufacturers, oil firms, and chemical industries, never mentioning tourism or community development. Still, the value of this book is its clear argument for environmental awareness and the many tools the authors provide to help companies develop plans to incorporate a sustainable culture throughout the value chain – looking not only at the company's activities, but up- and downstream toward suppliers and the purchasing public. While repetitive (reading the introduction and last chapter will provide most of what you need), Green to Gold is an excellent manifesto for “smart” commerce, as well as a very good map to help companies and communities move in the “green” direction while enhancing the bottom line.  


Etzioni, Amitai. The Spirit of Community. New York: Crown Publishers, 1993 (323 pp.). Etzioni is the communitarians’ principal spokesperson, and this is one of the early bibles of their philosophy. He is trying to find a balance between individual rights and the common good, and he thinks the pendulum has drifted too far toward a rights-based society. MORE

Feifer, Maxine. Tourism in History: From Imperial Rome to the Present. New York: Stein and Day, 1985 (288 pages). Although her study is now more than two decades old, Feifer's account of the history of tourism throughout the world is still one of the most relevant overviews for any student of the travel industry. In particular, Feifer shows that current tourism trends, such as cultural tourism or heritage tourism, were always part of leisure travel, well before the terms were coined. Her concept of the "post-tourist" is still debated among academics and practitioners today.

Florida, Richard. The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent. New York: HarperCollins, 2005 (326 pp.). This follow-up to economist Florida's bestselling The Rise of the Creative Class argues that cities, regions, and nations must prepare for the "creative economy" if they are to succeed. Florida suggests, however, that the U.S. is in danger of losing out because it is not attracting or growing the talented individuals who will help to expand the creative class – stuck in an Industrial Age economy. State and local directors of economic development should at least be familiar with Florida's ideas. 

Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, 2002 (404 pp.). Florida’s bestselling and controversial work argues that a new "Creative Class" is central to the emerging knowledge-based economy. He suggests communities should position themselves to attract the Creative Class, because of their high income and education levels. What this group is looking for, he maintains, are communities that are diverse, tolerant, and dynamic – the opposite of many manufactured places.

Fodor, Eben. Better Not Bigger: How To Take Control of Urban Growth and Improve Your Community. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 1999 (175 pp.). Fodor is a long-time activist in the growth battles in Portland, Oregon, one of the few cities that has enacted policies like Urban Growth Boundaries. This book stems from his research into the costs and consequences of the growth machine. MORE

Forbes, Peter. The Great Remembering: Further Thoughts on Land, Soul, and Society. San Francisco: The Trust for Public Land, 2001 (95 pp.). The former vice president of TPL, Forbes suggests that instead of treating the symptoms of our misuse of land (chronicled in detail here), we need to transform “the root of the problem” – our relationship with nature. “The ecological solution,” he writes, “is to rethink land conservation as the conservation of culture.” He suggests land agencies focus too much on “how” to save land (a technical solution) and not enough on “why” they do what they do (the human side of the question). He asks, “Can we grow from a technical movement to a social movement?” The new “radical center” Forbes proposes is a blend of science and human values. This short but helpful text includes a recipe for success, and includes many examples of people and organizations working to enhance the land and human culture simultaneously.

Gallagher, Winifred. The Power of Place: How Our Surroundings Shape Our Thoughts, Emotions, and Actions. New York: Poseidon Press, 1993 (240 pp.). This book’s title is a little misleading, in that it sounds like it would be relevant for researchers interested in the historical and conceptual notions of "place," place’s role in community building, new community planning approaches like New Urbanism, and other theoretical matters. It’s not. MORE

Gammage, Jr., Grady. Phoenix in Perspective: Reflections on Developing in the Desert. Tempe: Arizona State University, 1999 (180 pp.). It’s clear Gammage cares about the future of Greater Phoenix. Although he’s a lawyer who represents developers, all of his recommendations do not fall into the growth-at-any-cost school of thought. The title suggests he is attempting to explain why the region looks as it does; and while he can explain it historically, that doesn’t mean we have to agree with it – or continue it. MORE

Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. New York: Anchor Books, 1991 (548 pp.). Journalist Garreau coined a new concept with "edge city," those developments that are neither city nor suburb, but have evolved into their own new community form. Garreau is aware of the problems edge cities create for community-building, but he also understands and even condones their existence.

Gladwell, Malcom. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2000 (301 pp.). This wonderful bestseller explores a number of sociological, cultural, and historical trends and events to explain why a thing "tips" – that is, why something, like Sesame Street, a certain politician, or a new clothing style, suddenly becomes fashionable. Gladwell's analysis covers a lot of ground, much of it psychological, but the interesting thing for community building is his observation that "small things" (see the title) are what matters, not new stadiums, malls, convention centers, and the like.

Goeldner, Charles R. and J.R. Brent Ritchie. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, 9th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003 (606 pp.). This massive textbook is fairly typical of the publications used in university classrooms to teach travel and tourism. At more than 600 pages, the book is extremely comprehensive, demonstrating that tourism is not a separate industry, but instead a business that connects to nearly every economic, social, environmental, or cultural sector in most communities. The introductory chapters, putting tourism into a large economic, geographic, and cultural context, are particularly helpful. Much of the book is aimed at students wishing to make a career in tourism, either as travel agents, hotel managers, or related professions; and it almost reads like a recruiting tool. While newer editions do cover issues like sustainable tourism and ecotourism, the authors' references to the social or environmental damage that the industry might foist on a region feel tokenistic. Goeldner and Ritchie are clearly industry supporters, and that comes through in their prose. When they mention something like the community's role in setting tourism standards, which they do more than once, there's next to no information about how to involve the public or who dictates what the acceptable standards are. One hopes future editions will include more research from the sustainable tourism movement. Still, anyone working in the tourism business should consult this work, if only because it's a typical classroom textbook – perhaps one of the most used – and it's helpful to know how tourism is being taught.  

Graham, Brian, G. J. Ashworth and J. E. Tunbridge. A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture & Economy. London: Arnold, 2000 (284 pp.). This far-reaching text provides dozens of interesting ideas about the nature, ownership, and presentation of heritage, although it is probably more valuable as an academic exercise than as a helpful tool for heritage tourism managers. MORE

Gratz, Roberta B. Cities Back from the Edge: New Life for Downtown. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998 (361 pp.). Gratz’s well-known book is somewhat of a modern rendition of Jane Jacob’s 1961 classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in that she examines the best practices for making cities livable. She may be a little too black-and-white for some, but her voice is an important one. MORE

Greider, William. The Soul of Capitalism: Opening Paths to a Moral Economy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003 (366 pp.). Greider's analysis joins the growing number of voices calling for a new understanding of what "success" looks like for capitalism. Rather than toss out the benefits that capitalism has brought to many citizens, he asks us to build on this solid infrastructure, yet add a social dimension that is missing in most economic calculations. In other words, similar to books such as Savitz's The Triple Bottom Line, Greider includes social and environmental ingredients in his evaluation of capitalism's success. His approach also depends on civic engagement, since he believes most corporations and governments are unable, or unwilling, to imagine a different economic system. Highly recommended, filled with many best practices.

Harris, Rob, Tony Griffin and Peter Williams. Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 (311 pp.). Sustainable tourism is one of the growth markets within the tourism industry. This collection of nearly 20 essays could spend a little more time with the question of what sustainable tourism actually is, and less time documenting "best practices" that are far from conclusive, and somewhat repetitive. MORE

Hart, Stanley and Alvin Spivak. The Elephant in the Bedroom: Automobile Dependence and Denial. Pasadena, CA: New Paradigm Books, 1993 (173 pp.). This short but highly provocative book has become a controversial classic in the field of transportation studies. Hart and Spivak argue that we unfairly subsidize our car culture while cheating public transit. MORE

Hart, Stuart. Capitalism at the Crossroads: Aligning Business, Earth, and Humanity, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing, 2007 (260 pp.). While this book focuses more on developing sustainable business practices in the third world, or what Hart refers to as the Base of the Pyramid (BoP), where more than four billion people live on less than a dollar a day, the principles that underlie his strategies are no less relevant for any community or commercial enterprise hoping to create sustainable programs that go "beyond greening." Of particular interest is Hart's insistence that businesses "become indigenous," that is, that they listen to and incorporate the voices and values of local people, so new commercial enterprises are driven from the ground up, rather than the typical corporate top-down approach.

Hawken, Paul. The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability. New York: HarperCollins, 1993 (250 pp.). Business leader Hawken has provided one of the earliest and clearest manifestos highlighting why and how corporations and other industries need to get on board the sustainability wave. Working from historical and ethical perspectives, the author argues for a "restorative" economic system, one that "creates, increases, nourishes and enhances life on earth." In this far-reaching examination of our cultural values, social structures, economic drivers, and political realities, Hawken demonstrates to businesses trying to earn a profit and activists hoping to save the environment how they can work together toward sustainable ends. The book is filled with many case studies and recommendations.

Hawken, Paul, Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1999 (396 pp.). Businessman Hawken and the Lovins, founders of the Rocky Mountain Institute, coined the term “Natural Capitalism,” which shares much with the ecological economics promoted by Hermann Daly and others. Natural Capitalism demands that businesses and corporations account for the Triple Bottom Line – that in addition to the financial ledger, today's companies must also factor in environmental and social costs. The first part of the book, an overview of the earth's ecological problems, explains why the market simply doesn't have a choice in the matter; if we keep operating without taking society and nature into account, we'll simply run out of resources very soon. The most helpful sections in the book are the many, many practices that the authors include to demonstrate that the market and the environment are not at odds. In fact, they argue that there is profit in doing the right thing, and they present numerous examples of old businesses that have revised their policies, or new businesses that are thriving in this new economic landscape. Their examples are worldwide, and while most of the case studies don't relate directly to place-making, their lessons are no less applicable. Essentially, they argue that the market is an effective tool for building healthy communities, and it shouldn't be thought of as an end in itself.  

Hiss, Tony. The Experience of Place. New York: Knopf, 1990 (233 pp.). Hiss’s book has gained something of the status of a classic in the "place" genre; he’s a personable writer and he was probably one of the first to write about the idea of "place" in this way. Some of it’s dated, but his book presages many of the placed-based issues communities wrestle with today. MORE

Holliday, Charles O., Stephan Schmidheiny and Philip Watts. Walking the Talk: The Business Case for Sustainable Development. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing Unlimited, 2002 (288 pp.). For anyone who still maintains that community development has to be either jobs or the environment, they should consult this book, written by CEOs of three of the world's largest corporations, including Shell Oil and DuPont. Walking the Talk introduces the concepts of “Eco-efficiency,” Corporate Social Responsibility, and other socially and environmentally sustainable forms of development. The authors have been involved with these and related movements since the 1980s. Complete with more than 60 best practices from around the world, the book demonstrates that sustainable development is not only possible, but imperative, given our environment's precarious decline during the last half century. Far from “tree huggers,” the three authors argue that the market can and should partner social and environmental NGOs to better understand and connect to the communities in which they do their work, at the same time the NGOs can use market forces to help build healthier places. From our perspective, the book still argues for too much “growth” (the authors seldom suggest consumers simply do with less, for example), but the cases presented here may persuade those who believe absolutely in Adam Smith's free-market approach to consider a broader triple bottom line – market, environment, society. The book is helpful for individual businesses that want to operate in a more responsible manner, as well as entire communities trying to build healthier and more sustainable places for their citizens.

Honey, Martha. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999 (405 pp.) This well-written and extremely comprehensive study of ecotourism lays a good deal of the blame for the unmet promise of ecotourism squarely on the shoulders of the major players in the travel industry. Honey’s criticisms of and recommendations for ecotourism are applicable to other place-based forms of tourism. MORE

Hunter, James Davison. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. New York: Basic Books, 1991 (416 pp.). This lengthy sociological study looks at the forces that divide America into political, social, moral, and religious factions. Would be helpful for communities trying to encourage civic dialog among groups with opposing value systems. MORE

Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985 (396 pp.). Nearly two decades after its publication, Jackson’s sweeping history is still one of the finest and clearest overviews of how American-style suburbs came to dominate the landscape – showing how the automobile, federal programs, racism, and economic conditions created the perfect storm that pushed development outward, ruining cities in the process. MORE

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961 (458 pp.). Although she’s gone on to write many other books on the nature of cities, economies, and civilization in general, Jacobs’ Death and Life is still required reading for anyone interested in the shape of communities. Most of her observations and recommendations have been validated by contemporary planners; the New Urbanists, in particular, often sound like Jane Jacobs updated. It’s amazing how prescient this New York neighborhood activist was.

Judd, Dennis R. and Susan S. Fainstein (eds.). The Tourist City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999, (340 pp.). This anthology of sixteen essays explores the ways in which major cities have incorporated tourism into their economic, social, and cultural development. Although a bit uneven, the book skillfully shows how large cities, in particular, do or don’t manage to incorporate tourism into the larger social and economic structures. MORE

Kay, Jane Holtz. Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America and How We Can Take It Back. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1997 (418 pp.). Kay’s encyclopedic indictment of America’s auto-mandatory culture probably won’t sit well with folks in sprawling megalopolises that remain addicted to their cars. Still, the book is without doubt one of the most expansive and well-written histories of how the automobile came to trump every other form of public transportation – and what this has meant to the shape of community. MORE

Kemmis, Daniel. Community and the Politics of Place. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1990 (150 pp.). The former mayor of Missoula, Kemmis focuses most of his insights on the notion of "place" – what he has called "bio-regionalism." In his view, one’s commitment to the common good begins with a sense of place, and he makes a strong case that understanding one’s history and heritage is central to healthy communities. MORE

Kemmis, Daniel. The Good City and the Good Life: Renewing the Sense of Community. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1995 (226 pp.). In some ways, this is a sequel to Community and the Politics of Place, in that it is less theoretical and more grounded in Kemmis’s experiences of a city that works (Missoula, where he was mayor). He includes many examples of small citizen-initiated activities that help make communities livable. MORE

Kirchenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998 (326 pp.). Kirchenblatt-Gimblett, a professor at NYU, writes in that art-critic, academic tone that is maddeningly convoluted, yet often incisive and exhilarating. Amid the verbal gymnastics, Kirchenblatt-Gimblett intersperses dozens of nuggets about the current state of culture, the function of museums, and the relation of both to tourism. MORE

Kunstler, James Howard. The City in Mind: Notes on the Urban Condition. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001 (272 pp.). In his usual witty and perceptive prose, Kunstler explores the history behind the making of eight of the world’s largest and most interesting cities, including three in America – Las Vegas, Atlanta, and Boston. One point is that America’s modern metropolises could learn a lesson or two from older cities.

Kunstler, James Howard. The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made Landscapes. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993 (303 pp.). Kunstler’s first and still most widely read critique of modern architecture, urban design, and suburban lifestyles should be read by anyone concerned about the nature of place-making in America. Often funny, always witty, Kunstler says what a lot of us have always thought: many of our towns are ugly but they don’t have to be.

Kunstler, James Howard. Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World for the 21st Century. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996 (318 pp.). In some ways an epilogue to The Geography of Nowhere, Kunstler provides more examples of how to redress some of the problems he documented in the earlier book. His recommendations fall in line with those of New Urbanists and other traditionalists.

Lakoff, George. Don't Think of an Elephant: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2004 (124 pp.). Sure, Lakoff's surprising underground classic is intended for progressive policy makers – providing strategies and techniques to help them overcome the conservative agenda. Be that as it may, the slim volume should be consulted by anyone involved in community politics, because it helps us understand the concept of “framing” debate. According to the author, “Reframing is changing the way the public sees the world,” and he uses explosive issues like abortion, taxes, the environment, and school vouchers to illustrate how “framing” the conservation helps activists (on either side) generate the answers that fit their agenda. A professor of linguistics, Lakoff shows that it's not enough to have reason, proof, or right arguments on your side; you also need to position the debate within the most appropriate context.

Lasch, Christopher. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in An Age of Diminishing Expectations. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979 (282 pp.). Long before other social critics complained about "me-ism" in modern America, or the so-called radical individualism that threatens the greater good, Lasch was exposing similar conditions, but at a much deeper level. MORE

Leccese, Michael and Kathleen McCormick, eds. Charter of the New Urbanism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000 (194 pp.). This is a helpful primer for anyone wanting to know the history and basic philosophy of the New Urbanism movement. It includes dozens of short essays and designs by practitioners, mostly architects and city planners. MORE

Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Ballentine Books, 1949 (303 pp.). There's little doubt that Leopold's collection of essays will become one of the most important books about land, nature, and community published in the 20th century. For anyone concerned about those topics, this volume is a must-read. Trained as a forester, Leopold reads like a philosopher, and nearly every sentence in this book rings of eloquent truth. The chapter, “Thinking Like a Mountain,” though just a few pages, is one of the most profound statements about the ecological system to see print. Leopold's most important contribution, “The Land Ethic,” argues that humans must shift their relationship to nature from a purely economical model to an ethical connection, best described in this famous line: “a land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it.” In many ways, he anticipated the development of what's come to be called environmental ethics. Read and relish this beautiful book, and find ways to apply Leopold's prophetic words to your activities.

Lippard, Lucy R. The Lure of the Local: Senses of Place in a Multicentered Society. New York: The New Press, 1997 (328 pp.). Lippard has long been one of our best and most prolific cultural observers, mostly in the realm of art criticism. Lure of the Local is a dense and challenging book that begins by exploring the notion of place – specifically, the "local" – in order to suggest how art can contribute to our understanding of community. MORE

Lippard, Lucy R. On the Beaten Track: Tourism, Art, and Place. New York: The New Press, 1999 (182 pp.). In this collection of twelve essays, Lippard’s target is tourism and the role of art within the industry. Most of the art she discusses is created by younger artists, whose work deals with tourism in general (usually critical), new forms of tourism (such as cultural tourism), or the ethnic and/or gender dimensions of tourism. MORE

Louv, Richard. Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 2005 (334 pp.). Louv's book is already something of a classic among environmental and place-making organizations. He explains with facts, personal anecdotes, and many other stories why children need nature. Beyond their individual benefits, however, Louv illustrates how connecting youth to wilderness also helps create a healthier community and better quality of life for everyone. A must-read for any parent, teacher, or community activist.

MacCannell, Dean. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class, 3rd Ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 (231 pp.). MacCannell’s is one of the first and still most relevant sociological studies of the tourist, whom he sees as the exemplar for the postmodern figure: "alienated but seeking subjectivity in his alienation." At times challenging, this book should be read by anyone remotely connected to the tourism industry. MORE

Marshall, Alex. How Cities Work: Suburbs, Sprawl, and the Road Not Taken. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000 (243 pp.). This is both a frustrating and invigorating book, one that has insightful observations to make about the nature of place-making (mostly related to transportation), but which is too disparaging of others’ attempts to create community in their own way. MORE

Masumoto, David Mas. Epitaph for a Peach: Four Seasons on My Family Farm. New York: Harper Collins, 1995 (233 pp.). Masumoto’s lyrical treatise uses his peach farm in California as a metaphor for the increasingly commodified nature of community. Just as peaches and other foods are becoming more mass-produced and plastic, so are our towns. The author suggests we create "microbrewed communities," which, like microbrewed beer, celebrate uniqueness and distinctiveness, unlike the national watered-down but familiar brands. A wonderful book!

Mathews, David. Politics for People: Finding a Responsible Public Voice. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1994 (228 pp.). Mathews writes about "Americans who are trying to create a politics that is relevant to their everyday concerns." Like others, he notes that associations, forums, and other opportunities for people to come together to address the issues are more important and powerful than "official" political frameworks. MORE

McDonough, William and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York: North Point Press, 2002 (193 pp.). This classic study of sustainable design has tremendous implications for building healthy communities, something rarely mentioned in the book. The authors discuss Triple Bottom Line economic theory, the importance of being "native to place" in terms of product development (rather than homogenous and copycat), and reaching audiences that are "buying green" – voting with their wallets. Whenever McDonough and Braungart, who are longtime practitioners of eco-efficiency and industrial ecology, describe their processes for designing new cars or buildings, just transfer their ideas to the larger community context.

McHarg, Ian. Design with Nature. Philadelphia: Natural History Press, 1969 (198 pp.). One of the forerunners of ecological planning, McHarg demonstrates in this classic book how communities can save their natural, historical, and built heritage, at the same time they enhance economic development. Design with Nature includes both philosophical arguments and practical case studies that feature many maps and other visual demonstrations.

McKercher, Bob and Hilary du Cros. Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management. New York: Hayworth Hospitality Press, 2002 (262 pp.). This is one of the most recent and thorough overviews of cultural tourism, although it falls short of following through with some of its early promises. Still, it helps the tourism industry understand the cultural community, and vice versa. MORE

Merchant, Carolyn. American Environmental History: An Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007 (489 pp.). A large question any "sense of place" program encounters is, "Why do we think and act the way we do toward nature?" In addition to writers such as Donald Worster and William Cronon, Merchant has been one of the leading scholars exploring this question through the lens of history. In this new book, she provides a concise overview of the cultural, legal, scientific, and moral forces that have shaped our attitudes toward the land. The book would be of help to readers who want a brief but solid review, as fewer than half of its pages are narrative — the remainder being a glossary, timeline, and many different bibliographies. Students of environmental history will probably know most of this story already, but for others Merchant's book provides a good introduction to the topic.

Mowforth, Martin and Ian Munt. Tourism and Sustainability: New Tourism in the Third World. London: Routledge, 1998 (363 pp.). Although the focus here is on tourism in the Third World, the principles discussed are relevant for most heritage tourism sites, as well as the governments, tourism agencies, NGOs, and others that work with heritage in general and heritage tourism specifically. MORE

Mumford, Lewis. The City in History. San Diego: Harvest, 1961 (657 pp.). Mumford’s sprawling, comprehensive, and insightful look at the history of urban forms throughout the world is a "must read" for any student of community. His comments concerning the effects of the car and transportation systems on downtowns and their expanding suburbs are most prophetic.

Nabhan, Gary Paul and Stephen Trimble. The Geography of Childhood: Why Children Need Wild Places. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994 (184 pp.). We love this book and just about everything Gary Nabhan, an esteemed ethnobotanist, writes. The theme here is summed up in the title: children need wildness and exposure to the natural world for their own development and to better understand their role in the wider community. Great stuff.

Oelschlaeger, Max. The Idea of Wilderness. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991 (477 pp). Concepts such as sustainability, wilderness, and ecology are grounded in humankind's historical, social, ethical, economic, scientific, and religious connections to the environment, and environmental ethicist Oelschaeger covers them all here. Too often, however, as Oelschlaeger argues in this massive study, we try to solve the “environmental crisis” or execute “sustainable development” by privileging the same technical, scientific and modernist perspectives that got us into this mess in the first place – ignoring cultural or ethical contexts. In his ambitious, sprawling history of the idea of wilderness, which stretches from Paleolithic beliefs to contemporary concepts, Oelschlaeger traces the evolution of our relationship to nature, putting our most significant nature philosophers in context (Thoreau, Muir, Leopold), and persuasively linking their work to the larger sphere of intellectual history. If you're looking for a breezy, lightweight exploration of the wilderness idea, find another book. This tome is philosophically complex and conceptually meaty, but for readers hungry for an exhaustive, multidisciplinary exploration of wilderness, there aren't many better books with which to begin.

Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. New York: Paragon House, 1989 (338 pp.). Oldenburg’s interesting and lively look at what he terms "third places" – those spaces where citizens meet in informal ways – has become one of the classics of place-based literature, and with good reason. The eradication of third places goes a long way toward explaining the shape of our communities. MORE

Phillips, Derek. Looking Backward: A Critical Appraisal of Communitarian Thought. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1993 (248 pp.). For people who get carried away with the nostalgia of the "good old days" when something like "community," "neighborliness," and unspoken "social contracts" existed, here’s a study to give them pause. MORE

Pink, Daniel. A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers Will Rule the Future. New York, Berkley Publishing Group, 2005 (275 pp.). Pink's whole-mind literature is an important supplement to the work of creative economists like Richard Florida. Pink argues that successful businesses in the future will tap into people's creativity, including their ability to think conceptually and holistically. Although he does not address community development specifically, Pink's work relates to place-making because of its focus on using a creative approach to create meaning.

Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York: Penguin Books, 1985 (184 pp.). Ostensibly about the way television and other mass media rob us of our humanity, this book is really about how television’s pervasive influence affects the way we talk to one another, conduct public affairs, and build community. MORE

Putnam, Robert. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000 (541 pp.). A follow-up book to the 1995 famous essay of the same title, Putnam’s lengthy study looks at the nature of public participation in America – the causes for its decline as well as some practical solutions. Putnam’s research into urban design suggests sprawl is not conducive to community-building.

Putnam, Robert. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1993 (258 pp.). Before Bowling Alone this book suggested many of the same points. After studying several regions in Italy for more than two decades, the author concludes that associations, trust, and other forms of "social capital" are central to the survival of strong communities.

Quinn, Bill. How Wal-Mart Is Destroying America (and the World): And What You Can Do About It. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2000 (171 pp.). A bit on the "rant" side (to say the least!), Quinn’s short but provocative book is one of the essential manuals for activists trying to keep the Big Box from Arkansas our of their communities. Quinn’s passionate little book is filled with references to assist local planning committees.

Roseland, Mark. Toward Sustainable Communities: Resources for Citizens and Their Governments. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 1998 (240 pp.). This new edition of Roseland’s previous volume of nearly the same title provides many more resources for communities, especially since the advent of the Internet and the wealth of information one can find there. Filled with best practices from around the world, Toward Sustainable Communities is an excellent beginner’s tool for places looking to develop more sustainable policies. MORE

Rothman, Hal (ed.). The Culture of Tourism, the Tourism of Culture: Selling the Past to the Present in the American Southwest. University of New Mexico Press, 2003 (250 pp.). This anthology of eleven essays, including one by editor Rothman, addresses the topic outlined in the Introduction: how and why cultural tourism has become "an integral part of the future not only of tourism, but also of the economy of the American Southwest." Intended more for the historian of tourism than the practitioner. MORE

Rothman, Hal. Devil’s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998 (434 pp.). The premise here is that "tourism promises much but delivers only a little," and much of what it does deliver is not what communities anticipate: crowds, environmental damage, a different resident, inflated property taxes, lost local businesses, low-wage jobs, and control by outside forces. In sum, tourism changes communities, often burying the things that drew people to them. Even if you don’t agree with Rothman, it’s helpful to understand his point of view. MORE

Rojek, Chris and John Urry, eds. Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory. London: Routledge, 1997 (214 pp.). Edited by two of tourism’s most notable theorists, Touring Cultures presents itself as an anthology of "cutting edge" articles that comment on not only tourism and culture, but also the culture of tourism. MORE

Rybczynski, Witold. City Life. New York: Touchstone, 1995 (256 pp.). Popular urbanist Rypczynski begins with a question: "Why don't American cities look like those in Europe, with their history, culture, and livability?" This accessible history – for lay readers, not architectural historians – argues that cities here once did express the "civic arts" one finds in Europe. Eventually, though, practical and commercial concerns, combined with modernism in architecture and the flight to the suburbs, created the sprawling metropolitan area. Rybczynski suggests a new kind of city is emerging, one that combines the best of both urban and suburban environments.

Rybczynski, Witold. Home: A Short History of an Idea. New York: Penguin Books, 1987 (256 pp.). You'll never look at a house in quite the same way after reading this wonderful study. Rybscynski, who teaches urbanism at the University of Pennsylvania, offers a very readable history of how our quest for comfort has been responsible for most of the changes in our homes. Both social history and architectural history, the book's theories could be applied to community-making on a larger scale.

Rypkema, Donovan. The Economics of Historic Preservation: A Community Leader’s Guide. Washington, D.C.: The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994 (131 pp.). Rypkema provides a wonderfully readable and practical guide for historic preservation activists who need ammunition to keep city councils and developers from ripping down old structures. Let’s hope more city councils hear the arguments in this book. MORE

Sanders, Scott Russell. Staying Put: Making a Home in a Restless World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993 (203 pp.). This is a beautiful narrative about trying to establish a sense of place by not bowing to the great God restlessness. Sanders argues that we need to stay with our environments, stay with our beliefs, and stay with our families. We’re fans of just about everything Sanders writes, most of which deals with community and place-based issues.

Savitz, Andrew. The Triple Bottom Line. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, 2006 (300 pp.). The sustainable, place-enhancing development that CHG advocates can certainly benefit from a “Triple Bottom Line” approach to development and reporting – accounting not only for the financial bottom line, but social and environmental bottom lines as well. TBL thinking has been around for decades, often characterized as “sustainable development” or covered in movements like “corporate social responsibility.” The term “triple bottom line” was coined in 1998, and Savitz's book nicely outlines the evolution of TBL thinking, at the same time it provides practical suggestions for incorporating the approach into one's development models. There is little doubt TBL will become a more important factor in the management of communities, businesses, and corporations, simply because more and more people recognize the economy does not exist separate from the environment or the society in which it operates. This is a good book to familiarize yourself with the TBL philosophy, a trend CHG fully embraces.

Schneider, Anne Larason and Helen Ingram. Policy Design for Democracy. Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press, 1997 (241 pp.). Political scientists Schneider and Ingram argue that little attention has been paid by scholars to the actual design of democracy – specifically, the way policies are created, discussed, implemented, and monitored. They charge that most policies benefit a privileged class, but it is the “design,” not so much the policies themselves, that leads elected officials and governments to continue this mostly unfair activity. Perhaps the most useful part of the text for community planners is the authors' notion of social construction – that policies, people, and events are “constructed” by agreement, and this social contract affects the way policies are created and implemented. They also call for less scientific, utilitarian approaches to policy, which is controlled primarily by “experts,” and more personal, unempirical direction and input from the general public.  

Schön, Donald A. and Martin Rein. Frame Reflection: Toward the Resolution of Intractable Public Controversies. New York: Basic Books, 1994 (247 pp.). While this text is intended primarily for public policy analysts and those who teach public policy, there are implications here for broader public approaches to policy issues. MORE

Schor, Juliet. The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need. New York: Basic Books, 1998 (353 pp.). Economist Schor follows up her Overworked American with an incisive study of consumerism in America. She provides many examples of how to do more with less – and why we should in the first place.

Schor, Juliet. The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books, 1992 (247 pp.). This award-winning book looks not so much at the facts and statistics of the work phenomenon, but at the value systems that drive us to work more – and what this means for community building. MORE

Schumacher, E.F. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper & Row, 1973 (305 pp.). Including the often-anthologized chapter "Buddhist Economics," this prophetic book was one of the earliest to question the "growth-is-good" and "more-is-better" philosophies that underpin most economic theories. The book is really a collection of Schumacher's essays and lectures, most of which not only attack status quo development thinking, but which also provide practical examples of how economics can lead to a better quality of life. Many of Schumacher's ideas show up today in the trend toward downsizing or the more sustainable approaches to economics, such as Natural Capitalism. Today, the Schumacher Society carries on his work.

Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books, 1999 (366 pp.). Winner of the Nobel Prize for economics, Sen provides another dense, paradigm-shifting view of economic development. Sen maintains that civic engagement, civil society, and other more ethical pursuits (unlike the technical, mechanical qualities that tend to define economics) are necessary for attaining a more just and sustainable world.

Shackley, Myra. Managing Sacred Sites: Service Provision and Visitor Experience. London: Continuum, 2001 (206 pp.). Noting that much tourism is a quest for meaning to some degree, Shackely’s book focuses primarily on the management of places people visit for religious, spiritual, and related emotive reasons – including cathedrals, archeological sites, shrines, temples, cemeteries, and even mountains and islands. MORE

Sirianni, Carmen and Lewis Friedland. Civic Innovation in America: Community Empowerment, Public Policy, and the Movement for Civic Renewal. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2001 (371 pp.). Anyone interested in public participation should consult this book, which is a history of the contemporary civic engagement movement, beginning primarily in the 1960s. Sirianni and Friedland, professors of sociology and journalism, respectively, provide a detailed account of how and why communities are turning to citizens to address today's troubling issues, from environmental degradation to health care. In the process they provide many case studies and best practices, and they feature numerous scholarly and research organizations around the nation that are working to promote effective public participation. Following an extensive overview of engagement since the 1960s, the book looks at the movement from three perspectives: the environment, health care, and journalism. In each case, the authors demonstrate how organizations are turning outward to the public – discarding the older “expert only” approach. The journalism section examines the growing “public journalism” movement, which is still debated among practitioners. The book concludes with a call for more public engagement and transparency in other sectors. Scholars, activists, and practitioners will all find the examples and historical context useful.

Smith, Melanie K. Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. London: Routledge, 2003 (195 pp.). Smith has provided one of the best recent surveys of the cultural tourism industry, from both a cultural and tourism perspective. Unlike many cultural practitioners, she understands the tourism industry, and vice versa. Her book is filled with excellent case studies. Should be on every tourism office’s book shelf. MORE

Weaver, David. Sustainable Tourism: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006 (240 pp.). Although written for university courses, this book represents one of the best historical and philosophical overviews of the sustainable tourism concept; it should be consulted by any scholar or practitioner interested in a more responsible approach to tourism. Weaver does an excellent job of putting the sustainability movement in its tourism context, tracing its emergence through various other developments such as ecotourism (Weaver's earlier publications mostly treat this approach) and other contemporary schools of thought that are not specific to tourism. Weaver provides numerous helpful examples of the principles that underpin sustainable tourism, connects these principles to case studies worldwide, and constantly tests the principles. That, perhaps, is the book's most beneficial feature – the author's willingness to show how the principles can be misappropriated or hijacked by programs that “use” the approach as a tool for profit, rather than a technique for sustainable development. He constantly puts tourism programs under the microscope to examine their economic, environmental, and social commitments to sustainability. The book is filled with tables, charts, stories, and graphs that help to measure a given program on the sustainability scale. Weaver compares the new trends in alternative tourism with the mass hospitality sector, and describes in detail the people, organizations, and methods that contribute to appropriate sustainable tourism. One hopes that every student of tourism and hospitality is exposed to this text. It is a good introduction, not only to sustainable tourism, but to the overall travel and tourism industry.

Whyte, William. The Last Landscape. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1970 (428 pp.). Author of The Organization Man and well-known treatises on urban planning, Whyte turns his attention here to open space and the natural world. Unfortunately, many of the negative outcomes he forecast have come true, whereas the optimism he expresses for some land-use issues is hard to muster today.

Withey, Lynne. Grand Tours and Cook's Tours: A History of Leisure Travel, 1750-1915. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1997 (401 pp.). Another history of tourism, this exhaustive account examines the industry from the business point of view – how it developed in the 18th century with the European "Grand Tour," the rise of mass tourism spearheaded by people like Thomas Cook, and the opening of the American West via railroads and the automobile. Withey ends the story with the coming of airplanes. Like other accounts, this book illustrates that travel has always had a cultural heritage dimension to it. Further, many proponents of tourism saw it as a democratizing force, and one that would foster understanding between nations.

Worster, Donald, ed. The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988 (341 pp.). A great deal of today's discussion about “sense of place” concerns humankind's relationship to the environment. Since the 1980s that relationship has been the focus of historians examining the evolution of our changing attitudes toward nature—in different times, different cultures, different belief systems, different methodologies. Worster is one of the recognized spokespersons in this field, and The Ends of the Earth is one of the first collections that discusses environmental history in general, and then demonstrates how a historical perspective helps to further our understanding of the environmental forces at work today.

Worster, Donald. Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994 (505 pp.). Our understanding of place, nature, the environment, and related concepts is grounded in historical, philosophical, social, and theological views, and historian Worster does an excellent job of presenting and explaining them in this indispensable work. Worster shows how our relationship to nature has historically swayed between the extremes of the transcendental-utilitarian pendulum, and he convincingly demonstrates how these different attitudes influence public, corporate, technological, and political policies. Worster is primarily interested in “ecology,” and by exploring its development historically and conceptually, he provides an interesting overview of the science that frames ecological progress, as well as the values systems that underpin experimentation itself. Anyone interested in ecological studies, especially the modern-day focus on biodiversity, sustainability, and "sense of place," should consult this important book. Along with Nash's Wilderness and the American Mind, Worster's study is an essential look at the topic.

Yankelovich, Daniel. Coming to Public Judgment: Making Democracy Work in a Complex World. Syracuse: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1991 (290 pp). Yankelovich’s findings and his conclusions have many worthwhile implications for those trying to build healthy communities. The book is concerned, most of all, with how the public moves from mass opinion to what he calls "public judgment." MORE