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Cultural tourism is sometimes regarded as a means by which the tourist achieves a level of personal transformation as a result of his or her visit to a symbolically significant destination.
Myra Shackley

Readings: Civic Tourism


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Civic Tourism Readings

This bibliography includes literature specific to the "Civic Tourism" Program area, which CHG considers an ideal "place-based" form of economic development.

For the complete Readings page click here.

Boniface, Priscilla. Managing Quality Cultural Tourism. London: Routledge, 1995 (127 pp.). Boniface is a pioneer in heritage tourism studies, and this book, a brief text that seems intended mostly for students rather than practitioners, is one of the earliest to approach the issue of cultural resource management from a tourism perspective. MORE

Bosselman, Fred P., Craig A. Peterson, and Claire McCarthy. Managing Tourism Growth: Issues and Applications. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999 (304 pp.). The approach here is technical and legal. The authors examine how entire communities – neighborhoods, towns, cities, regions, countries – approach tourism. They note tourism can provide benefits to host communities, mostly economic, but they’re also clear that the industry can have a downside if it’s not managed according to local customs, capacities, and values. MORE

Brown, Jessica, Nora Mitchell and Michael Beresford (eds.). The Protected Landscape Approach: Linking Nature, Culture and Community. Cambridge UK: IUCN Publications Services Unit, 2005 (268 pp.). This anthology of 17 articles examines the growing “Protected Landscape Approach” within the conservation movement. While much of the book is technical and intended for professional conservationists and heritage managers, it is accessible to most readers, especially those wishing to build a healthier quality of life for their community. Most essays focus on the evolving nature of landscape conservation, which increasingly is recognizing the interrelationships between land and human culture. As such, the book urges local cooperation among place-based entities, and it envisions “place” as a mosaic – not a separate island unto itself. Another focus is the process of sustainable land management, which is also shifting – from an “expert,” top-down approach to one that involves local voices in decision making. While community-building and tourism are subcategories here, the processes that underpin the Protected Landscape approach will benefit both. The anthology includes many examples and case studies, and while most of these are outside the U.S., their findings are no less relevant.

Chambers, Erve (ed.). Tourism and Culture: An Applied Perspective. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1997 (221 pp.). The "Applied" in the title is an attempt to connect the discipline of anthropology to the tourism industry by examining the underlying cultural contexts within which tourism operates – and to look at the effects of tourism on different communities’ social markers. MORE

Drummond, Siobhan and Ian Yeoman (eds.). Quality Issues in Heritage Visitor Attractions. Oxford: Butterworth / Heinemann, 2001 (273 pp.). This anthology begins by examining the idea of quality in the service sector, primarily from a Total Quality Management (TQM) perspective, and then links this understanding to the heritage industry. MORE

Edgell, David L. Managing Sustainable Tourism: A Legacy for the Future. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, 2006 (144 pp.). This slim volume by a seasoned tourism scholar is less about “managing” sustainable tourism programs than it is about the evolution of the sustainability niche. Edgell succinctly recounts the developments, reports, and research in the hospitality sector that have led to the sustainability movement, an analysis that argues more or less that a responsible approach to tourism – economically, environmentally, socially – is not only preferred but necessary, given the industry's reliance on and connection to environmental and social contexts. The book would be a good introduction to the tourism developments that have led to and continue to frame the sustainability debate within travel industry circles, i.e., ecotourism, cultural tourism, heritage tourism. Edgell also describes many sustainable tourism programs, and from these examples he extracts several seminal principles that underpin the movement, such as authenticity, local participation, and environmental protection. However, he says less about how these and other topics are dealt with, especially when controversy erupts – the “managing” element that the title promises. The book makes a good argument for sustainable tourism, and it includes some fine case studies; but there could be more about how these programs operate. Weaver's study, Sustainable Tourism, while a textbook, tackles the issues in a more helpful manner.  

Feifer, Maxine. Tourism in History: From Imperial Rome to the Present. New York: Stein and Day, 1985 (288 pages). Although her study is now more than two decades old, Feifer's account of the history of tourism throughout the world is still one of the most relevant overviews for any student of the travel industry. In particular, Feifer shows that current tourism trends, such as cultural tourism or heritage tourism, were always part of leisure travel, well before the terms were coined. Her concept of the "post-tourist" is still debated among academics and practitioners today.

Goeldner, Charles R. and J.R. Brent Ritchie. Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, 9th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003 (606 pp.). This massive textbook is fairly typical of the publications used in university classrooms to teach travel and tourism. At more than 600 pages, the book is extremely comprehensive, demonstrating that tourism is not a separate industry, but instead a business that connects to nearly every economic, social, environmental, or cultural sector in most communities. The introductory chapters, putting tourism into a large economic, geographic, and cultural context, are particularly helpful. Much of the book is aimed at students wishing to make a career in tourism, either as travel agents, hotel managers, or related professions; and it almost reads like a recruiting tool. While newer editions do cover issues like sustainable tourism and ecotourism, the authors' references to the social or environmental damage that the industry might foist on a region feel tokenistic. Goeldner and Ritchie are clearly industry supporters, and that comes through in their prose. When they mention something like the community's role in setting tourism standards, which they do more than once, there's next to no information about how to involve the public or who dictates what the acceptable standards are. One hopes future editions will include more research from the sustainable tourism movement. Still, anyone working in the tourism business should consult this work, if only because it's a typical classroom textbook – perhaps one of the most used – and it's helpful to know how tourism is being taught.  

Graham, Brian, G. J. Ashworth and J. E. Tunbridge. A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture & Economy. London: Arnold, 2000 (284 pp.). This far-reaching text provides dozens of interesting ideas about the nature, ownership, and presentation of heritage, although it is probably more valuable as an academic exercise than as a helpful tool for heritage tourism managers. MORE

Harris, Rob, Tony Griffin and Peter Williams. Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 (311 pp.). Sustainable tourism is one of the growth markets within the tourism industry. This collection of nearly 20 essays could spend a little more time with the question of what sustainable tourism actually is, and less time documenting "best practices" that are far from conclusive, and somewhat repetitive. MORE

Honey, Martha. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999 (405 pp.) This well-written and extremely comprehensive study of ecotourism lays a good deal of the blame for the unmet promise of ecotourism squarely on the shoulders of the major players in the travel industry. Honey’s criticisms of and recommendations for ecotourism are applicable to other place-based forms of tourism. MORE

Judd, Dennis R. and Susan S. Fainstein (eds.). The Tourist City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999, (340 pp.). This anthology of sixteen essays explores the ways in which major cities have incorporated tourism into their economic, social, and cultural development. Although a bit uneven, the book skillfully shows how large cities, in particular, do or don’t manage to incorporate tourism into the larger social and economic structures. MORE

Kirchenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998 (326 pp.). Kirchenblatt-Gimblett, a professor at NYU, writes in that art-critic, academic tone that is maddeningly convoluted, yet often incisive and exhilarating. Amid the verbal gymnastics, Kirchenblatt-Gimblett intersperses dozens of nuggets about the current state of culture, the function of museums, and the relation of both to tourism. MORE

Lippard, Lucy R. On the Beaten Track: Tourism, Art, and Place. New York: The New Press, 1999 (182 pp.). In this collection of twelve essays, Lippard’s target is tourism and the role of art within the industry. Most of the art she discusses is created by younger artists, whose work deals with tourism in general (usually critical), new forms of tourism (such as cultural tourism), or the ethnic and/or gender dimensions of tourism. MORE

MacCannell, Dean. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class, 3rd Ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999 (231 pp.). MacCannell’s is one of the first and still most relevant sociological studies of the tourist, whom he sees as the exemplar for the postmodern figure: "alienated but seeking subjectivity in his alienation." At times challenging, this book should be read by anyone remotely connected to the tourism industry. MORE

McKercher, Bob and Hilary du Cros. Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management. New York: Hayworth Hospitality Press, 2002 (262 pp.). This is one of the most recent and thorough overviews of cultural tourism, although it falls short of following through with some of its early promises. Still, it helps the tourism industry understand the cultural community, and vice versa. MORE

Mowforth, Martin and Ian Munt. Tourism and Sustainability: New Tourism in the Third World. London: Routledge, 1998 (363 pp.). Although the focus here is on tourism in the Third World, the principles discussed are relevant for most heritage tourism sites, as well as the governments, tourism agencies, NGOs, and others that work with heritage in general and heritage tourism specifically. MORE

Rothman, Hal (ed.). The Culture of Tourism, the Tourism of Culture: Selling the Past to the Present in the American Southwest. University of New Mexico Press, 2003 (250 pp.). This anthology of eleven essays, including one by editor Rothman, addresses the topic outlined in the Introduction: how and why cultural tourism has become "an integral part of the future not only of tourism, but also of the economy of the American Southwest." Intended more for the historian of tourism than the practitioner. MORE

Rothman, Hal. Devil’s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998 (434 pp.). The premise here is that "tourism promises much but delivers only a little," and much of what it does deliver is not what communities anticipate: crowds, environmental damage, a different resident, inflated property taxes, lost local businesses, low-wage jobs, and control by outside forces. In sum, tourism changes communities, often burying the things that drew people to them. Even if you don’t agree with Rothman, it’s helpful to understand his point of view. MORE

Rojek, Chris and John Urry, eds. Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory. London: Routledge, 1997 (214 pp.). Edited by two of tourism’s most notable theorists, Touring Cultures presents itself as an anthology of "cutting edge" articles that comment on not only tourism and culture, but also the culture of tourism. MORE

Rypkema, Donovan. The Economics of Historic Preservation: A Community Leader’s Guide. Washington, D.C.: The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994 (131 pp.). Rypkema provides a wonderfully readable and practical guide for historic preservation activists who need ammunition to keep city councils and developers from ripping down old structures. Let’s hope more city councils hear the arguments in this book. MORE

Shackley, Myra. Managing Sacred Sites: Service Provision and Visitor Experience. London: Continuum, 2001 (206 pp.). Noting that much tourism is a quest for meaning to some degree, Shackely’s book focuses primarily on the management of places people visit for religious, spiritual, and related emotive reasons – including cathedrals, archeological sites, shrines, temples, cemeteries, and even mountains and islands. MORE

Smith, Melanie K. Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. London: Routledge, 2003 (195 pp.). Smith has provided one of the best recent surveys of the cultural tourism industry, from both a cultural and tourism perspective. Unlike many cultural practitioners, she understands the tourism industry, and vice versa. Her book is filled with excellent case studies. Should be on every tourism office’s book shelf. MORE

Weaver, David. Sustainable Tourism: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006 (240 pp.). Although written for university courses, this book represents one of the best historical and philosophical overviews of the sustainable tourism concept; it should be consulted by any scholar or practitioner interested in a more responsible approach to tourism. Weaver does an excellent job of putting the sustainability movement in its tourism context, tracing its emergence through various other developments such as ecotourism (Weaver's earlier publications mostly treat this approach) and other contemporary schools of thought that are not specific to tourism. Weaver provides numerous helpful examples of the principles that underpin sustainable tourism, connects these principles to case studies worldwide, and constantly tests the principles. That, perhaps, is the book's most beneficial feature – the author's willingness to show how the principles can be misappropriated or hijacked by programs that “use” the approach as a tool for profit, rather than a technique for sustainable development. He constantly puts tourism programs under the microscope to examine their economic, environmental, and social commitments to sustainability. The book is filled with tables, charts, stories, and graphs that help to measure a given program on the sustainability scale. Weaver compares the new trends in alternative tourism with the mass hospitality sector, and describes in detail the people, organizations, and methods that contribute to appropriate sustainable tourism. One hopes that every student of tourism and hospitality is exposed to this text. It is a good introduction, not only to sustainable tourism, but to the overall travel and tourism industry.

Withey, Lynne. Grand Tours and Cook's Tours: A History of Leisure Travel, 1750-1915. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1997 (401 pp.). Another history of tourism, this exhaustive account examines the industry from the business point of view – how it developed in the 18th century with the European "Grand Tour," the rise of mass tourism spearheaded by people like Thomas Cook, and the opening of the American West via railroads and the automobile. Withey ends the story with the coming of airplanes. Like other accounts, this book illustrates that travel has always had a cultural heritage dimension to it. Further, many proponents of tourism saw it as a democratizing force, and one that would foster understanding between nations.

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